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Basic Principles Agreement

The United States and the USSR agree that multilateral consultations for a conference on security and cooperation in Europe could begin after the signing of the final quadrilateral protocol to the Agreement of 3 September 1971. Both Governments agree that the Conference must be carefully prepared so that it can address specific problems of security and cooperation and thus contribute to the gradual reduction of the causes of tensions in Europe. This conference should be convened at a time that should be approved by the countries concerned, but without undue delay. Recognizing the importance of developments in Europe, where the two world wars originated, for world peace, and aware of the responsibilities and obligations they share with other powers under appropriate agreements, the United States and the USSR intend to redouble their efforts to ensure a peaceful future for Europe, free from tensions, crises and conflicts. On 3 September 1971, the two parties regard a quadrilateral agreement on the western sectors of Berlin as a good example of fruitful cooperation between the States concerned, including the United States and the USSR, and both parties consider that the rapid implementation of this agreement, together with other measures, will further improve the European situation and contribute to the necessary confidence between the States. Contrary to the initial Soviet proposal, which Kissinger considered totally unacceptable, the agreed text offered the United States “marginally useful” precautions[3], not specifically in the field of preventing nuclear war, but in the special field of Kissinger`s geopolitical realpolitik: according to him, “it would be impossible for the Soviets to turn against NATO or the Middle East, without violating the agreement. And it even gave us a kind of legal framework to resist a Soviet attack on China. [2] Nevertheless, Kissinger doubts that the deal is worth it. [2] TWELFTH. The basic principles set out in this document do not affect previous commitments made by the United States and the USSR to other countries. These agreements, which were reached as a result of the negotiations in Moscow, are an important step in containing and ultimately ending the arms race. The United States and the Soviet Union agree in principle that an agreement must be reached to limit the fear and danger of nuclear war.

Both parties attach great importance to the Treaty on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Systems and the Interim Agreement between them on Certain Measures to Limit Strategic Offensive Weapons. Anything discussed and agreed upon in this Agreement shall not affect or limit Article 51 of the Charter of the United Nations, the provisions of the Charter of the United Nations dealing with international peace and security, and other treaties, arrangements and documents previously concluded by either Party with its allies. First. They will start from the common determination that in the nuclear age there is no alternative to conducting their mutual relations on the basis of peaceful coexistence. Differences in the ideology and social systems of the United States and the USSR are not obstacles to the bilateral development [page 390] of normal relations based on the principles of sovereignty, equality, non-interference in internal affairs and mutual benefit. Both sides believe that the objective of ensuring stability and security in Europe would be served by a mutual reduction of forces and armaments, especially in Central Europe. Any agreement on this issue should not diminish the security of either party. Appropriate agreements on the relevant negotiating procedures should be concluded as soon as possible between the States concerned in a special forum. The United Arab Emirates and the USSR are ready to make appropriate contributions to the positive trends on the European continent towards genuine détente and the development of peaceful cooperation relations among States in Europe on the basis of the principles of territorial integrity and inviolability of borders, non-interference in internal affairs, sovereign equality, independence and renunciation of enforcement or Threat of violence. Both sides believe that positive results have been achieved during the high-level talks. These results suggest that despite the differences between the United States and the USSR. In social systems, ideologies and political principles, it is possible to develop mutually beneficial cooperation between the peoples of the two countries in the interest of strengthening international peace and security.

Both sides stress the importance of the Agreement on Exchanges and Cooperation in science, technology, education, culture and other fields, signed in Moscow on 11 April 1972 from 1972 to 1973. The continuation and expansion of bilateral exchanges in these areas will provide a better understanding and contribute to improving the overall state of relations between the two countries. Within the general framework offered by this agreement, the two sides agreed to expand the areas of cooperation as reflected in new agreements in the fields of space, health, environment and science and technology. Upon signature by both parties, the agreement will enter into force immediately. An agreement was reached between the two sides on measures to prevent incidents at sea and in the airspace above between ships and aircraft of the US and Soviet navies. By establishing agreed procedures for ships and aircraft of both navies operating in close proximity, this agreement will reduce the likelihood of dangerous accidents. On the basis of their obligations under the Charter of the United Nations on peacekeeping, cessation of the threat or use of force and prevention of war, and in accordance with the agreements signed by one of the Parties, the United States and the USSR consider that the ultimate objective of their efforts is the achievement of general and complete disarmament and [page 391] the establishment of a effective system of international security in the community of Member States. Compatible with the establishment of an effective system of international security in accordance with the purposes and principles of the United Nations.

Seventh. The United States and the USSR consider trade and economic relations to be an important and necessary element in strengthening their bilateral relations and will therefore actively promote the growth of these relations. They will facilitate cooperation between relevant organisations and enterprises in both countries and the conclusion of appropriate agreements and contracts, including long-term ones. The Agreement to Prevent Nuclear War[1] was created to reduce the risk of nuclear war between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. The agreement was signed at the Washington Summit on 22 June 1973. The United States and the USSR agreed to reduce the risk of nuclear war and establish a policy to curb hostility. The SALT 1 agreement was to last five years, so the SALT 2 talks began in November 1972. The two sides have concluded a cooperation agreement in the field of health care, which is a fruitful start for the exchange of knowledge on common enemies, diseases and disabilities and joint attacks against them. The program`s initial research efforts will focus on health issues that are important to the world – cancer, heart disease, and environmental health sciences. FOURTH. The United Arab Emirates and the USSR intend to broaden the legal basis of their mutual relations and to make the necessary efforts to ensure that the bilateral agreements they have concluded and the multilateral treaties and agreements to which they are parties are faithfully implemented.

Another objective of this agreement is to maintain open relations between the United States, the Soviet Union and their allies. To this end, the two sides signed an agreement on cooperation in the fields of science and technology. A Joint U.S.-Soviet Commission on Scientific and Technical Cooperation is established to identify and establish cooperation programs. Convinced that these objectives would be served by the conclusion of a trade agreement between the United States and the USSR, the two sides decided to complete the work necessary for the conclusion of such an agreement in the near future. They agreed on the desirability of making credit arrangements for the development of mutual trade and of making early efforts to resolve other financial and economic issues. It was agreed that a lend-lease settlement would be negotiated at the same time as a trade agreement. The SALT 1 Treaty reached agreement in three areas: The two sides agreed to launch a cooperation programme to protect and improve the human environment. Through joint research and action, the United States and the USSR hope to contribute to maintaining a healthy environment in their countries and around the world. Under the new environmental cooperation agreement, consultations on specific cooperation projects will take place in Moscow in the near future. Sixth. The Parties will continue their efforts to limit armaments on both a bilateral and multilateral basis. They will continue to make special efforts to limit strategic armaments.

To the extent possible, they will conclude concrete agreements to achieve these objectives. By mutual agreement between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the President of the United States and Ms. Richard Nixon paid an official visit to the Soviet Union beginning in May. 22 to 30 May 1972. The President was accompanied by Secretary of State William P. .